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Garlic, Shallots & Specialty Onions Growing Guide
Garlic Growing Guide
Clove Depth Clove Spacing Hardneck cloves per bulb Hardneck cloves per pound Softneck cloves per bulb Softneck cloves per pound
2-3" 6" 5-10 40-65 6-18 50-90

Folklore is rife with tales of garlic's ability to bestow strength and courage, treat a vast array of disease and infections, and to ward off evil. Modern day medicine has shown this remarkable food to be powerfully effective at boosting the immune system, supporting cardiovascular health, and fighting cancer.

Hardneck Garlic: Allium sativum subsp. ophioscorodon Cloves grow in a single circle around a central woody stem. These varieties also produce, or attempt to produce, a flower-like stalk. What makes these garlics stand out is the range and quality of flavors they exhibit. Hardneck garlics typically have a shorter storage life than softnecks.

Softneck Garlic: Allium sativum subsp. sativum These varieties produce cloves in several layers around a soft central stem. Approximate cloves per pound can vary based on seasonal conditions and the variety. These easy-to-grow garlics are excellent in the kitchen and usually have the best storage qualities. Great for braiding.

Elephant Garlic: Allium ampeloprasum Not a true garlic, these enormous bulbs have much milder and sweeter flavor than garlic, as it's related more closely to a leek. Elephant garlic is planted 6-8 inches apart and covered with 4-6 inches of soil.

Culture
• Garlic thrives in rich, well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0-7.0
• Work in 1 inch layer of compost, 1/2 cup of bone meal, 1/2 cup TSC's Complete fertilizer per 5 row feet
• When spring growth begins: water to keep the soil slightly moist, and fertilize with Age Old Grow or TSC's Complete fertilizer
• As harvest approaches: water less to avoid molding or staining
• Hardnecks: cut off any flowering stems (scapes) at the top leaf to redirect energy to the bulb; scapes can be used like green onions

Direct Sowing
• In Northern regions, garlic is best planted by the end of October, or 6-8 weeks before the ground freezes
• Southern regions may plant as late as March
• Separate the cloves of garlic just prior to planting, keeping as much skin on as possible
• Plant cloves pointed end up
• Mulch with clean straw or leaves to 4 inches

Insects & Diseases
• Adapted to many climates, garlic is easy to grow and is bothered by few pests
• Disease prevention: 5-7 year crop rotation, avoid soggy soil

Harvest & Storage
• Harvest when the top 4-5 leaves are slightly green and lower leaves are dry
• Begin checking for mature bulbs in late June
• Each green leaf represents one layer of covering over the bulb in the ground
• Tie the plants in small bundles and dry in a cool, shaded, well-ventilated location for about 3-4 weeks
• After curing is done, cut foliage and roots from bulbs and store in mesh bags
• Softnecks: you can keep leaves on and braid the whole plant

 

Shallot Bulb Growing Guide
Bulb Spacing Row Spacing Bulbs per pound
6-8" 12" 15-30, unless otherwise noted

Allium cepa, Aggregatum Group

Culture
• Shallots thrives in rich, well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0-7.0
• Work in 1 inch layer of compost, 1/2 cup of bone meal, 1/2 cup TSC's Complete fertilizer per 5 row feet
• When spring growth begins: water to keep the soil slightly moist, and fertilize with Age Old Grow or TSC's Complete fertilizer
• As harvest approaches: water less to avoid molding or staining
• Our shallot varieties are adapted to 36-55° latitude

Direct Sowing
• Plant the root ends down and cover with 1/2 inch of soil and mulch with clean straw or leaves to 4 inches

Harvest & Storage
• Bulbs are ready to harvest when leaves have turned yellow and fall over
• Standard yield for shallots is about 4-5 times the amount planted
• Cure shallots like onions: in a warm (75-80°F), shaded, well-ventilated location until outer skin and necks are dry
• Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area
• Check occasionally and immediately remove any sprouting or rotting shallots

 

Shallot Seed Growing Guide
Soil Temp for Germ. Seed Depth Seed Spacing Thin Plants To Min. Germ. Seed Life Seeds per 1/2 gram Seeds per 1/4 ounce
50-85°F 1/2" 1/2-3/4" 2-4" 75% 1 year ≈ 100 7

Allium cepa, Aggregatum Group

Days to maturity are calculated from date of direct seeding.

Culture
• Shallots prefer light, sandy, loamy soils
• Apply 1/4-1/2 cup of TSC's Complete fertilizer per 5 row feet, 1-2 inches below transplant or seed

Direct Sowing
• Thin to the strongest plant when 4-5 inches

Transplanting
• Sow up to 10-12 seeds in a 4-6 inch pot
• If tops reach over 5 inches before transplant, cut to 3 inches
• When planting out carefully separate the seedlings and place in a shallow trench
• Fill trench around seedlings and water in well

Insects & Diseases
Common insects: Onion thrips and maggots
Insect control: Monterey B.t. or Neem oil
Disease prevention: 5-7 year crop rotation

Harvest & Storage
• As bulbs approach maturity, withhold water so protective paper can form
• Bulbs are ready to harvest when leaves have turned yellow and fall over
• Cure in a warm (75-80°F), shaded, well-ventilated location until outer skin and necks are dry
• Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area
• Check occasionally and immediately remove any sprouting or rotting shallots

 

Walking Onion Growing Guide

Allium cepa, Proliferum Group
Egyptian onions, also known as tree or walking onions, are very hardy perennials. These fascinating onions form several small bulbs underground, plus they produce clusters of reddish hazelnut-sized bulblets at the top of each seed stalk. Normal flowers do not occur.

Planting
• Plant bulblets 5-6 inches apart, 1 inch deep, in rows spaced 12 inches apart

Insect & Diseases
Common insects: Onion thrips and maggots
Insect control: Neem oil or Predatory Nematodes
Common diseases: Fusarium basal rot, pink root
Disease prevention: 5-7 year crop rotation

Harvest & Storage
• Once Egyptian onions have established themselves, you can harvest both the bulbs at the base of the plant and the bulblets at the top of the stems
• If left untended, you will understand the term "walking onion", as the onion stalks will bend down to the ground and take root by themselves
• In more severe climates, the bulbs should be stored and replanted in the spring
• Cure in a warm (75-80°F), shaded, well-ventilated location until outer skin and necks are dry, then trim tops, leaving one inch above the bulb
• Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area
• Check occasionally and immediately remove any sprouting or rotting onions

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